Even though bunions are a common foot condition, they are probably the one with the most misconceptions. Many people suffer unnecessarily with the pain and/or appearance of bunions for years before seeking treatment out of fear about ?surgery?. The good news is that most bunion pain can be resolved without surgery.
The most common cause of bunions is wearing shoes that are too tight. The condition is not hereditary, but it does tend to run in families-often due to a faulty foot structure. Other causes of this condition might be neuromuscular problems, flat feet, pronated feet, or foot injuries. SymptomsYour bunion may not cause any symptoms. Or you may have pain in your big toe, red or irritated skin over the bunion, and swelling at the base of the big toe. The big toe may point toward the other toes and cause problems in other toes, such as hammer toe . A bunionette can cause similar symptoms at the base of the little toe.
Looking at the problem area on the foot is the best way to discover a bunion. If it has the shape characteristic of a bunion, this is the first hint of a problem. The doctor may also look at the shape of your leg, ankle, and foot while you are standing, and check the range of motion of your toe and joints by asking you to move your toes in different directions A closer examination with weight-bearing X-rays helps your doctor examine the actual bone structure at the joint and see how severe the problem is. A doctor may ask about the types of shoes you wear, sports or activities (e.g., ballet) you participate in, and whether or not you have had a recent injury. This information will help determine your treatment.
Non Surgical Treatment
Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that?s needed. To reduce the chance of damage to the joint, periodic evaluation and x-rays by your surgeon are advised. In many other cases, however, some type of treatment is needed. Early treatments are aimed at easing the pain of bunions, but they won?t reverse the deformity itself. These include changes in shoewear. Wearing the right kind of shoes is very important. Choose shoes that have a wide toe box and forgo those with pointed toes or high heels which may aggravate the condition. Padding. Pads placed over the area of the bunion can help minimize pain. These can be obtained from your surgeon or purchased at a drug store. Activity modifications. Avoid activity that causes bunion pain, including standing for long periods of time. Medications. Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, may be recommended to reduce pain and inflammation. Icing. Applying an ice pack several times a day helps reduce inflammation and pain. Injection therapy. Although rarely used in bunion treatment, injections of corticosteroids may be useful in treating the inflamed bursa (fluid-filled sac located around a joint) sometimes seen with bunions. Orthotic devices. In some cases, custom orthotic devices may be provided by the foot and ankle surgeon.
Conservative bunion treatment methods help to reduce the symptoms but they cannot undo changes in the bone to fully correct the condition. If the pain becomes severe and it starts to affect your daily life, then foot bunion surgery may be the best option to correct a hallux abducto valgus. There are a number of different surgical options, depending on the severity of the bony deformity. The two most common types of surgery are Osteotomy. This is the most common type pf surgery and involves removing part of the bony lump and realigning the toes. It is also known as a bunionectomy or exostectomy. The ligaments around the big toe may also need realigning and this will be done at the same time if necessary. Fusion.This is where the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint) is fused together, known as an arthrodesis. This is only indicated in severe cases or if other treatments have failed as it severely limits the movement of the big toe.
Make better shoe choices. If you?re a woman, avoid high-heeled footwear whenever possible (at the very least, choose shoes with heels lower than two inches), and make sure all your footwear has a wide, deep toe box. Whether man or woman, if you?re trying on shoes and your toes feel ?squished? or crowded by a particular shoe, reject that style and try another, or go for a larger size. You don?t need to invite trouble. In general, shoes that come to a point at the toe are bad news, as they tend to push the toes together into an overlapping pattern. Shoes with rocker soles will unload pressure on the bunion area. Examine your feet regularly. Note any redness, swelling or discoloration. Flex your toes and check for any stiffness. If there is any, think back to what you?ve worn or done in the past few days. If the condition persists more than a few days, or worsens, a visit to the podiatric physician is in order.