, also called hammer toe, deformity of the second, third, or fourth toe in which the toe is bent downward at the middle joint (the proximal interphalangeal [PIP] joint), such that the overall shape of the toe resembles a hammer. Most cases of hammertoe involve the second toe, and often only one or two toes are affected. In rare cases when all the toes are involved, a thorough neurological assessment is necessary to evaluate for underlying nerve or spinal cord problems.
While ill-fitting shoes may contribute to a hammertoe, shoes don't actually cause it, Hammertoes occur by the pull and stretch of the tendon. One tendon gets a more mechanical advantage over the other and allows the deformity to occur. Not surprisingly, wearing shoes that are too tight can make a hammertoe worse. If you're fond of narrow, pointy-toed shoes or high-heeled pumps, keep in mind you're squeezing those toes and tendons, which may aggravate hammertoes.
Pain upon pressure at the top of the bent toe from footwear. The formation of corns on the top of the joint. Redness and swelling at the joint contracture. Restricted or painful motion of the toe joint. Pain in the ball of the foot at the base of the affected toe.
The earlier a hammertoe is diagnosed, the better the prognosis and treatment options. Your doctor will be able to diagnose your hammertoe with a simple examination of the foot and your footwear. He or she may take an x-ray to check the severity of the condition. You may also be asked about your symptoms, your normal daily activities, and your medical and family history.
Non Surgical Treatment
Apply a commercial, nonmedicated hammertoe pad around the bony prominence of the hammertoe. This will decrease pressure on the area. Wear a shoe with a deep toe box. If the hammertoe becomes inflamed and painful, apply ice packs several times a day to reduce swelling. Avoid heels more than two inches tall. A loose-fitting pair of shoes can also help protect the foot while reducing pressure on the affected toe, making walking a little easier until a visit to your podiatrist can be arranged. It is important to remember that, while this treatment will make the hammertoe feel better, it does not cure the condition. A trip to the podiatric physician?s office will be necessary to repair the toe to allow for normal foot function. Avoid wearing shoes that are too tight or narrow. Children should have their shoes properly fitted on a regular basis, as their feet can often outgrow their shoes rapidly. See your podiatric physician if pain persists.
Sometimes surgery can not be avoided. If needed, the surgery chosen is decided by whether we are dealing with a flexible or rigid hammer toe. If the surgery is on a flexible hammer toe, it is performed on soft tissue structures like the tendon and or capsule of the flexor hammer toe. Rigid hammer toes need bone surgeries into the joint of the toe to repair it. This bone surgery is called an arthroplasty.